Patron-client networks[ edit ] Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, and as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition. These networks are usually composed of: They focus more on how the operations works, succeeds, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are generally typified by:
Thomas Pogge[ edit ] Thomas Pogge 's arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits.
He assigns responsibility to those who actively cooperate in designing or imposing the social institution, that the order is foreseeable as harming the global poor and is reasonably avoidable.
Pogge argues that social institutions have a negative duty to not harm the poor. An example given is slavery and third parties. A third party should not recognize or enforce slavery.
The institutional order should be held responsible only for deprivations of human rights that it establishes or authorizes. The The social and economic impact of organized crime institutional design, he says, systematically harms developing economies by enabling corporate tax evasion,  illicit financial flows, corruption, trafficking of people and weapons.
Joshua Cohen disputes his claims based on the fact that some poor countries have done well with the current institutional design. The Role of the United Nations, states that "Social justice may be broadly understood as the fair and compassionate distribution of the fruits of economic growth At the initiative of the Soviet Union, and with the support of developing countries, the term was used in the Declaration on Social Progress and Development, adopted in The concept first surfaced in Western thought and political language in the wake of the industrial revolution and the parallel development of the socialist doctrine.
It emerged as an expression of protest against what was perceived as the capitalist exploitation of labour and as a focal point for the development of measures to improve the human condition. It was born as a revolutionary slogan embodying the ideals of progress and fraternity.
Following the revolutions that shook Europe in the mids, social justice became a rallying cry for progressive thinkers and political activists By the mid-twentieth century, the concept of social justice had become central to the ideologies and programmes of virtually all the leftist and centrist political parties around the world Institutionalized affirmative action has promoted this.
While legally outlawed, the caste system remains strong in practice.
The Brotherhood strongly affirmed the right to private property as well as differences in personal wealth due to factors such as hard work. However, the Brotherhood held Muslims had an obligation to assist those Muslims in need.
It held that zakat alms-giving was not voluntary charity, but rather the poor had the right to assistance from the more fortunate.
Under John Wesley 's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social justice issues of the day, including the prison reform and abolition movements. Wesley himself was among the first to preach for slaves rights attracting significant opposition. The Book of Discipline of the United Methodist Church says, "We hold governments responsible for the protection of the rights of the people to free and fair elections and to the freedoms of speech, religion, assembly, communications media, and petition for redress of grievances without fear of reprisal; to the right to privacy ; and to the guarantee of the rights to adequate food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
Catholic social teaching Catholic social teaching consists of those aspects of Roman Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the respect of the individual human life. A distinctive feature of Catholic social doctrine is its concern for the poorest and most vulnerable members of society.
Two of the seven key areas  of "Catholic social teaching" are pertinent to social justice: Life and dignity of the human person: The foundational principle of all "Catholic Social Teaching" is the sanctity of all human life and the inherent dignity of every human person, from conception to natural death.
Human life must be valued above all material possessions.
Preferential option for the poor and vulnerable: Catholics believe Jesus taught that on the Day of Judgement God will ask what each person did to help the poor and needy: The moral test of any society is "how it treats its most vulnerable members.
The poor have the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. People are called to look at public policy decisions in terms of how they affect the poor. He stated that society should be based on cooperation and not class conflict and competition. In this document, Leo set out the Catholic Church's response to the social instability and labor conflict that had arisen in the wake of industrialization and had led to the rise of socialism.
The Pope advocated that the role of the State was to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the Church must speak out on social issues in order to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony. The encyclical Quadragesimo anno On Reconstruction of the Social Order, literally "in the fortieth year" of by Pope Pius XIencourages a living wage subsidiarityand advocates that social justice is a personal virtue as well as an attribute of the social order, saying that society can be just only if individuals and institutions are just.
Pope John Paul II added much to the corpus of the Catholic social teachingpenning three encyclicals which focus on issues such as economics, politics, geo-political situations, ownership of the means of production, private property and the " social mortgage ", and private property.
The encyclicals Laborem exercensSollicitudo rei socialisand Centesimus annus are just a small portion of his overall contribution to Catholic social justice.
Pope John Paul II was a strong advocate of justice and human rightsand spoke forcefully for the poor. He addresses issues such as the problems that technology can present should it be misused, and admits a fear that the "progress" of the world is not true progress at all, if it should denigrate the value of the human person.
He argued in Centesimus annus that private property, markets, and honest labor were the keys to alleviating the miseries of the poor and to enabling a life that can express the fullness of the human person. Pope Benedict XVI 's encyclical Deus caritas est "God is Love" of claims that justice is the defining concern of the state and the central concern of politics, and not of the church, which has charity as its central social concern.Media Influences on Social Outcomes: The Impact of MTV's 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing Melissa S.
Kearney, Phillip B. Levine. NBER Working Paper . The HLPF is the central platform for follow-up and review of the Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals.
Yet, organized crime has profound economic consequences, in addition to obvious social and psy-chological costs. Over the short period, violence and predatory activities destroy part of the physical.
The Economic and Social Costs of Crime and Incarceration. but have no statistically significant impact on violent crime (Lofstrom and Raphael ). Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Abadinsky, Howard (back to index) Organized crime is a nonideological enterprise involving a number of persons in close social interaction, organized on a hierarchical basis, with at least three levels/ranks, for the purpose of securing profit and power by engaging in illegal and legal activities.
In , the economic impact caused by organized crime in the Latin American country was measured at billion Mexican pesos, up from billion pesos ten years earlier. Share on Social Media.