It entails the immersion of the textile material into liquid ammonia to improve the fabric's strength, shrink, and resistance.
Why we do Pre-Treatments? Pretreatment is the heart of processing of textile.
Grey cloth after weaving is quite unattractive and contains numerous natural as well as added impurities which hinder the successful carrying out of subsequent step like dyeing, printing and finishing.
In Pretreatment, all these impurities are removed and fabric is brought to a stage here it is more absorbent and white and can be easily processed further.
In other words Pretreatment process could be defined as procedures concerning about the removal of natural and added impurities in the fabric to an optimum level that can provide good whiteness and absorbency by utilizing minimum time, energy and chemicals as well as water.
Major steps involved in textile pretreatment are: Now… What is Mercerization? Mercerization is a method for processing cellulose fibers by alkalis. This processing makes the inside of the fibers swell to exploit new fiber properties beyond their original feel or physical properties.
Ammonia Mercerizing of cellulose fibers History: By combining ammonia mercerization and Sanforizing in a single step shrinkage control is greatly improved in denim.
In contrast to caustic mercerization, the fabric is ofter, semi-permanent press properties result and in the case of twill fabrics, there is less seam-puckering in garments, less leg- twist and edge-fraying. Unlike caustic mercerization, the fabric is not degraded, avoiding a harsh hand even after multiple washings.
The resistances to abrasion tear and tensile is significantly improved. The rest of the ammonia, which chemically bonded to the cellulose, was removed by light steaming.
The difference in effect as opposed to caustic mercerization is because with ammonia, there is less fiber-swelling, therefore the fibers are more pliable, which Additionally, unlike standard wet-finishing of denim, the ammonia penetrates completely into yarns and fibers, resulting in complete wetting, which is necessary for lasticizing the cotton for consistent shrinkage and elongation.
In garments that are fabricated from ammonia treated-fabrics, the garment life is longer after long periods of wear and repeated washings, improving sustainability. The much smaller molecular size of ammonia allows it to penetrate completely into every fiber of the fabric, unlike caustic which causes such rapid fiber- swelling that the caustic is blocked at the surface of yarns, preventing further penetration.
The ower surface tension overcomes the enormous resistance of air trapped in the fabric which is a characteristic of heavy cotton fabrics.
The permanent-press effects are achieved without the use of cross-linking resins, however, the commonly-used resins are soluble in ammonia and a combination resin finish and mercerizing, plus Sanforizing can be achieved if a soluble catalyst is mployed.
Additionally, ammonia acts as a formaldehyde-scavenger and resin- treated fabrics that are ammonia treated will produce no free-formaldehyde. Very close control of final shrinkage is achieved by fabric tension in the ammonia application in combination with compressive shrinkage.
Bythe primary application of ammonia mercerization was for treatment of heavy-weight cotton fabrics such as denim and orduroy, which are difficult to properly mercerize with traditional caustic treatments.
The ammonia process was intended as a replacement for conventional mercerizing for both fabrics and in mercerizing sewing threads Petrograd process. The original ammonia recovery methods required a large capital investment which limited acceptance in the textile industry, however, a more recent design has adopted patented seals that totally isolates the dry and steam process sections in order to avoid ammonia from coming into contact with water and air subsequently liminating the need for an expensive distillation and recovery operation.
Furthermore the seals also isolate the machine from the outside environment so that there are absolutely no ammonia odors in the room where the equipment is operating.
Textile Printing and dyeing processes include pr e-treatment, dyeing an d printing, finishing. The main pollutants are organic matters which come from the pre-treatment process of pulp, cotton gum, cellulose, hemicellulose and al kali, as well as additives and dyes using in. Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing BY Mrzatnqazt “Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing” Before Studding “Ammonia Treatment” we have to know about the Pretreatments in textile processing. Why we do Pre-Treatments? Pretreatment is the heart of processing of textile. Grey cloth after weaving is quite unattractive and . Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing BY Mrzatnqazt “Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing” Before Studding “Ammonia Treatment” we have to know about the Pretreatments in textile processing. Why we do Pre-Treatments? Pretreatment is the heart of processing of textile.
This unit also does not employ a felt calendar, which can also transfer allowing denim to be processed on the same machine without contamination of non- denim fabrics as well as reducing the problem of back staining with denim that occurs in caustic mercerization, since no water is required for washing.
All the imited residues of non-recyclable ammonia are completely neutralized and can be safely sent to the water treatment plant, so together with the significant reduction in water usage, this newer ammonia process can actually be considered environmentally friendlier than conventional caustic mercerization.
Ammonia- mercerization provides a higher dry-crease recovery and higher shrinkage consistency than caustic mercerization, especially with the dry-steam method of recovery.
However, caustic mercerization still has an advantage with regard to luster nd improved depth of color in dyeing, although the uniformity of dyeing after mercerization is significantly improved with ammonia.
Ammonia treatment results in a more rounded cotton fiber, which scatters light more, in turn resulting in a luster that is less bright. An additional advantage of ammonia mercerization is the absence of alkaline oxy-cellulose that results with caustic treatments, which is evidenced by strength-losses and dyeing variation.
The lower pH of ammonia allows safe treatment of more sensitive fibers like linen flax or silk. With caustic treatments of fabrics like enim, the elimination of washing required in caustic mercerization avoids the problems with removing caustic.
Mercerizes are not normally equipped with drum washers for removal of caustic from heavy cotton fabrics and contamination remains on the fabric at the time of drying which results in damage to cotton. The use of acetic acid to neutralize creates a problem with the formation of sodium acetate, which produces a very harsh feel.
The ammonia process on denims also produces a much flatter, richer appearance and improves the performance on stretch denim improving fit.
Tension control is important in both ammonia and caustic mercerization for improved fabric tenacity and elongation. Moisture regain is improved in both if tension is applied prior to fiber swelling.Liquid ammonia treatment (water-based process) was applied in a large-scale production for improving the quality of % linen and cotton/linen fabrics.
Purchase Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles, Volume 12 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN , Kabindra Kafle, Kenneth Greeson, Christopher Lee and Seong H Kim, Cellulose polymorphs and physical properties of cotton fabrics processed with commercial textile mills for mercerization and liquid ammonia treatments, Textile Research Journal, 84, 16, (), ().
Introduction. Singeing. Sizing and desizing. Scouring and carbonizing. Bleaching and optical brightening processes. Mercerization and liquid ammonia treatment of textiles. General references. Text references. 2. Fundamentals of Dyes and Dyeing Processes for Textiles.
Introduction. Relationship of color to chemical constitution of dyes. Download Citation on ResearchGate | Liquid ammonia treatment of textiles | Although basic research into the effect of liquid ammonia on cellulose was published as early as , it was not until.
Textile Processing and Properties. View on ScienceDirect. Textile Processing and Properties, Volume 11 1st Edition Preparation, Dyeing, Finishing and Performance Authors Sizing and desizing. Scouring and carbonizing.
Bleaching and optical brightening processes. Mercerization and liquid ammonia treatment of textiles. General .