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Calvinism had many profound social implications such as thrift, industry, and hard work are forms of moral virtue and that business material success is evidence of God's grace. These views created a climate favorable to commerce and in the establishment of modern capitalism.
Calvin agreed with Luther's criticisms of the Roman church, and with most of Luther's fundamental religious ideas, such as justification by faith alone and not by works. Augustinianism Calvin also followed Sola Scriptura, the idea that all Christian teachings should be based only the New Testament alone.
I emphasize alone for a good reason. Calvin along with the invention of the printing press promoted mass literacy. Protestantism in general opened a theological "Pandora's Box" not just against the Catholic Church, but Protestantism as well.
Both the Lutheran and Anglican English Churches became national churches often tied in closely with the governments of various German states and England. Lutheranism would dominate Germany and Scandinavia, but spread little outside those regions while Calvinism had little influence there.
Only in the Netherlands and Switzerland would Calvinism dominate. Geneva became the "Rome" of Calvinism where "reformers" would go to learn the faith and spread it all across Europe.
Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva, a government controlled by religious leaders. One of Calvin's most inspired students would be the Scotsman John Knox. Mary, Queen of Scots, etc. It was easy for Knox to gather followers because anti-French thus anti-Catholic sentiment was running high.
He established Presbyterianism in Scotland. But the conflict between Calvinism called Puritans in England and the Church of England and the English throne was just beginning. Calvinists refused to recognize the subordination of church to state, or the right of any government-king, parliament, or civic magistracy-to lay down laws for religion.
On the contrary, they insisted that true Christians, the elect or godly, should Christianize the state. They wished to remake society itself into the image of a religious community. The bitter struggle within English Protestantism would carry over to America. The Calvinist' idea of democracy would spread in America minus the Calvinism.
They had to end religious strife so the 13 Colonies could ban together to fight the English Throne. At this time the Episcopalian Anglican and Calvinist' Churches were by far the largest while all others including the Baptists and Methodists were very small. They would explode and dominate later on the American frontier.
The idea of the "Wall of Separation" in Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptist Association was to promote religious freedom, not ban God from public life. Calvin had a hand in founding democracy, but was himself a tyrant and established a theocracy. This met opposition even from many Calvinists.
America established a similar democracy with the specific goal of ridding themselves of all tyrants, kings and theocrats alike. The Synod of Dort in Holland fixed this form of belief as Dutch orthodoxy.
French Calvinists founded the Hugueno movement, which was suppressed by the Roman Catholic church. In England, Puritanism developed and briefly achieved ascendancy during the period when the monarchy was suspended under Oliver Cromwell.
The Westminster Confession represents the systematic expression of Puritan theology.
It was adopted by the Church of Scotland in and has become the basic creed of Presbyterian groups in Britain and throughout the world. Many English Puritans, dissatisfied with the policies of the Church of England, immigrated to America during the colonial period.
Settling in New England, they contributed greatly to shaping the religious character of the United States, especially through the preaching of Jonathan Edwards and other leaders during the Great Awakening.
Neither extreme side today be they secular extremists nor Religious Right represent America of The American Revolution was based indirectly on both Calvinism and a reaction to it.
Understanding Calvin is to understand the absurdities that have plagued Christianity for the last years. While Christian fundamentalists today reject most Calvinist theology, they demand what I'd call social Calvinism.TO THE EDUCATION SYSTEM.
IN THE UNITED STATES. BY. ANTONELLA CORSI-BUNKER. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: AN OVERVIEW. planning for changing educational needs in the community, and often even establishing classroom-based learning environment that a child customarily attends in the United States.
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Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Find stories, updates and expert opinion. The FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years.
It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in .